A lot of research research has been conducted on women’s entrepreneurship education and other related topics. These include the following:
Zoltán S.; & Lloyd in The Global Entrepreneurship Index (2018) research assessed the relationship between entrepreneurship, prosperity and economic development. The Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI) is a breakthrough advance in measuring the health, i.e. the quality and the dynamics of entrepreneurship ecosystems both at the national and regional levels and also the extent and depth of the supporting entrepreneurial ecosystem. They identified fourteen (14) factors that are important for the health of entrepreneurial ecosystems. These factors include Opportunity Perception; Startup Skills; Risk Acceptance Cultural Support; Opportunity Perception; Technology Absorption; Competition; Product; Process; High Growth; Internationalization; and Risk Capital. The research findings are that in 2018, globally GEI scores have improved on average by 3% since the previous year’s Index. The GEI scores for the Asia-Pacific region scores best in Product Innovation and Human Capital and is improving. Europe shows stability in high scores in Technology, Internationalization, and absorption while the region’s average score on Startup Skills has also increased. North Africa and the Middle East region demonstrate high scores in Risk Capital and Product Innovation. North America’s strongest areas are Risk Acceptance and Opportunity Perception while the Carribean, South/Central America are the strongest in Startup Skills and Product Innovation. Sub-Saharan Africa demonstrates greatest strength in Opportunity Perception. On a global scale, they reported a 22% increase in Product Innovation scores and an 11% increase in Startup Skills scores since the 2017 GEI. This implies that the global population is becoming more educated and identifying more opportunities for product creation. The overall environment has become slightly less friendly to entrepreneurship. The report concludes that certain aspects of entrepreneurship have become a bit harder, but entrepreneurs are trying to meet this challenge through new skill acquisition and production innovations.
In a similar report by Siri Terjesen and Ainsley Lloyd (2015) on The Female Entrepreneurship Index (FEI), the conditions that foster high-potential female entrepreneurship was conducted at the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute (GEDI). 77 countries were analysed by about 47 since 2014. They utilized an established theoretical framework to measure individual aspirations and the entrepreneurial environment ecosystem. Key findings and scores out of 100 for the top ten countries for female entrepreneurship are: United States 82.9; Australia 74.8; United Kingdom 70.6; Denmark 69.7; Netherlands 69.3; France 68.8; Iceland 68.0; Sweden 66.7; Finland 66.4; Norway 66.3.
Overall, a 7% increase in female entrepreneurship was recorded that is women entrepreneurs who intend to employ 10 people within 5 years and also grow their business by 50%. The percentage of female entrepreneurs who are highly educated that have some form of post-secondary education has increased 9%. However, female participation in the technology sector and innovativeness has decreased by about 19% and 13% respectively.
Despite the progress in some of the above countries, 61% of these countries score below 50 out of 100. Europe can women’s ability to recognize good opportunities to start a business, Latin American can improve their focus on export focus while sub-Saharan Africa is to improve women’s access to bank accounts and financial training programs.
Akhtar (2018) in a United Nation Publication Fostering Women’s Entrepreneurship in ASEAN. Transforming Prospects, Transforming Societies across Asia and the Pacific, analysed women’s overall participation in the labour force in the region. He assesses women’s economic empowerment as an essential tool for inclusive and sustainable development and increasing their participation in the economy. His findings include that women’s entrepreneurship could add over US $12 trillion in terms of annual global output by the year 2025. They noted that gender gaps in entrepreneurship and participation in labour force can have a severe negative impact on aggregate productivity and income per capita.
Based on the GEM data through correlation and regression analyses, Tatiana T. & Galina S. explored gender differences in efficiency-driven countries. The research focused on factors affecting the difference in entrepreneurial activity between genders through designing a conceptual framework of factors; and investigated whether these factors influence in a different way male and female entrepreneurial activity. An important finding of the research is that training on starting a new business has a greater influence on female entrepreneurial activity. Thus, training should be considered a vital tool when designing government policies and stimulating entrepreneurial activity in general for both female and male entrepreneurs. In particular, female entrepreneurial activity is influenced by life satisfaction, lack of self-confidence and service sector share. The research remark conclude that although lack of self-confidence has a negative influence on female entrepreneurs, women’s life satisfaction (i.e. their personal happiness and welfare and the overall conditions of the place where they live in could be increased by pursuing child care, improving their living standards, implementing important policy issues for women and the economic climate in general. Therefore, training on starting a new business is an essential issue when designing government policies and stimulating entrepreneurial activity for both female and male entrepreneurs. Finally, the availability of more gender-specific factors is required for the future research to ensure the possibility of investigating crosswise effects, and further exploration of factors evaluating the gender differences between male and female entrepreneurs.
Further to this, Tsyganova, T. (2010) in their work explored gender differences in efficiency-driven countries based on the GEM data through correlation and regression analyses. The research findings is that training on starting a new business as a common factor, has a greater influence on female entrepreneurial activity. Thus, training should be considered an essential issue when designing government policies and stimulating entrepreneurial activity in general, of both female and male entrepreneurs.
O’onnor (2010) analyzed the Australian government policy context and developed a metric framework that provides a focus for entrepreneurship education with respect to economic purpose. Using economic theory to provide purpose for entrepreneurship education based on a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education policy, he reported lack of a theoretically sound conceptual grounding within the Australian policy framework and advised that to advance the theory and practice of entrepreneurship, a rigorous method will be required to capture the socio-economic context of entrepreneurship.
Akhuemonkhan, Raimi and Sofoluwe (2012) in their research paper titled Entrepreneurship Education: An Imperative for Sustainable Development in Nigeria assessed the importance of entrepreneurship education as a vital tool for enhancing sustainable development in Nigeria. They analysed the problems facing Nigeria (high rate of poverty, youth and graduate unemployment; overdependence on foreign goods and technology; Low economic growth and development; among others). Through a review of various literature, the research argued that entrepreneurship education is faced with lack of funds, inefficient teaching methods, lack of text books, and inexperienced teachers. He also recommended that government should give adequate attention to entrepreneurial development in Nigeria through introduction of entrepreneurship education into the curricula of universities, making huge investment in training of entrepreneurship educators and funding of universities.
Sirelkhatim and Gangi (2015) in their research work on Entrepreneurship education: A systematic literature review of curricula contents and teaching methods through a systematic review of literature through provided a detailed map of common and best practices in terms of curricula content and methods of teaching entrepreneurship at the tertiary level and assessed how they correlate with practices recommended by entrepreneurship learning. Part of their research findings are lack of availability of a framework to assess best practices. They recommended entrepreneurship education to be learner-centred.
Egbefo D. O. & Mayowa (2017) in their research paper Entrepreneurship Education: A Vital Instrument for Youth Empowerment, assessed the importance of Entrepreneurship Education as a vital tool for youth empowerment, industrial development and consolidation of national integration in Nigeria in addition to challenges faced in the delivery of Entrepreneurship Education for youth empowerment and industrial development. The research takes its roots from the role of entrepreneurship Education in youth empowerment programs, economic development and analysed integrative structures built since 1960, and their effects on national integration, youth empowerment and industrial development in Nigeria. They advised that establishment and equipping of Entrepreneurship Education and training institutions towards youth empowerment for self-reliance should be the focus of the three tiers of government.
Beetseh, & Ahima (2012) worked on Entrepreneurship Education: Panacea for Self-reliance. The research adopts as a framework for analysis, the psychological theories of the Refugee and Schumpeter effects. The study made an exposition on the importance of entrepreneurship education as a vital tool for equipping students to emerge as job creators in Nigeria. They identified problems such as high rate of poverty; youth and graduate unemployment; over-dependence on foreign goods and technology; low economic growth and development; among others. The study recommends among others that educational programs at all levels of education should be made relevant to provide the youths the needed entrepreneurial skills to function effectively in Society.
Chirwa E, 2008 in their research work titled Effects of gender on the performance of micro and small enterprises in Malawi using national survey data from Malawi, this study compares the performance of enterprises owned by females with those owned by males. The results show that the relationship between gender and business performance is complex. While there are no significant differences in profit margins, female-owned enterprises tend to grow more rapidly in terms of employment than male-owned ones. Gender-based regression results also show that while there are common factors that affect the performance of both kinds of enterprise, there are also differential effects in which education is a critical factor for the success of female-owned enterprises.
Akingbami & Aransiola (2015) conducted a qualitative exploration of cultural practices which limit rural women entrepreneurship development in Southeast and Southwest of Nigeria. They highlighted effects of cultural practices and government interventions on rural women entrepreneurship. They assessed how these practices can be harnessed to enhance rural women entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Qualitative techniques using four focus groups and eight case studies were employed. The research findings revealed that most of the women were limited from engaging in certain businesses while the belief systems and traditional practices also inhibited the success of government initiatives. Hence, the need for cultural consideration and re-orientation of rural communities for successful development of female entrepreneurship in Nigeria.
Oladayo N. A. in his research work The Socio-Economic Implications of Boko Haram Insurgency in the North-Eastern Nigeria examined the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency. Findings from the study indicate that Boko Haram activities have severe implications on the economy and socio-economic lives of the people where the activities of the sect is concentrated. The paper recommends that government needs to provide employment to the teeming youths, dialogue with the sect if the need arises and equip the military with sophisticated gadgets in order to restore the socio-economic lives of the people.
Ndubuisi-Okolo P. U., Theresa A. and Leonard O. in their work on Entrepreneurship Education and Youth Development in Nigeria examined the effect of entrepreneurship education on youth development in Nigeria. They adopted the human capital Theory advocated by Robert (1991). Secondary data were mainly instruments utilized for data collection. It was concluded that through a well-planned and executed entrepreneurship education, Nigerian youths will be more productive thereby allowing their unique capabilities to be utilized for national development than abandoning their country for greener pastures overseas. They recommended that entrepreneurship education be incorporated into the ongoing career programs in secondary schools, colleges of education, polytechnics and universities.
Omoniyi A. O. (2015) in their paper ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION: ENCOURAGING FUTURE INNOVATION AMONG WOMEN IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA gave an overview of starting an entrepreneurship education and the benefits to national development. Emphasis are laid upon how small business entrepreneurship could be developed to large company entrepreneurship offering new products and making the entrepreneur function as the employer or boss rather than mere employees. Also, the paper stresses how women could be given the awareness of the social benefits they need to enjoy by giving them priorities and being considered eligible when receiving supplementary support because of their business acumen and naturally endowed managerial qualities.
Keser, 2017 in her paper on the Importance of women and women entrepreneurs education for new technologies: an analisys of policy documents through analysis of policy documents showed the importance of women education for new technologies in the Republic of Croatia and a systemic overview referring to education in the content of the Strategy through entrepreneurial education for women, especially in the field of technical sciences and fields for which there is market demand pending for business success, competitiveness and starting innovative businesses.
Paul A.; Moses A. and Olawole I. A conducted a qualitative Assessment of the Effects of Child Marriage on Female Education and Entrepreneurship in Northeastern Nigeria examined the factors inducing child marriage in Northeastern Nigeria, the effects and how these affect women’s educational attainment and entrepreneurial skills. Secondary data from Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2008) and other published data were used. Results show that avoidable poverty-a cause and an effect, Limited educational attainment and powerlessness of women are the three main effects of child marriage in Northeastern Nigeria which seriously affect women entrepreneurial skills and all-round development in that region. They came up with a conclusion that a more purposeful preventive interventions are seriously and urgently needed. In achieving this, we recommend compulsory education for all girl child of northern origin, economic empowerment for teenage girls and child brides and promote community leaders participation in the advocacy.
Adekola, P., Akanbi, M. O. (2015).A Qualitative Assessment of the Effects of Child Marriage on Female Education and Entrepreneurship in Northeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Multidisciplinary Studies. ISROSET.
Arogundade, B.B. Entrepreneurship Education: An Imperative for Sustainable Development in Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 2(1):26-29
Akhuemonkhan, I. A; Raimi, L.; Sofoluwe, A. O. (2013. Entrepreneurship education and employment stimulation. Afro-Asian Journal of Social Sciences 4(4)
Allan O. (2013). A conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education policy: Meeting government and economic purposes Entrepreneurship, Commercialisation and Innovation Centre. Journal of business venturing 28, 546-563
Beetseh, K & Ahima, S. E. (2012. Etrepreneurship Education: Panacea for Self-reliance and Job Creation in Nigeria. Journal of Research in Education and Society; 3(3)
Catherine A. & Joshua O. Aransiola. (30..01.2016). Qualitative exploration of cultural practices inhibiting rural women entrepreneurship development in selected communities in Nigeria. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship
Chirwa W. E, 2008. Effects of gender on the performance of micro and small enterprises in Malawi. Development Southern Africa (25) 3
D.O. Egbefo. (2017). Entrepreneurship Education: A Vital Instrument for Youth Empowerment, Industrial Development and Consolidation of National Integration in Nigeria (2017. An international multi-disciplinary journal, Ethiopia Afrrev Vol 11 (1) 45
Jasminka K. Importance of women and women entrepreneurs education for new technologies: an analysis of policy documents. Retrieved at https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/198630
Ndubuisi-Okolo P., Theresa, A. and Leonard O. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education and Youth Development in Nigeria: The Challenges. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review.3(3), 229-242
Nwoye, M. September, (2007). Gender Responsive Entrepreneurial Economy of Nigeria: Enabling Women in a Disabling Environment. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 9(1), 167-175.
Oladayo A. ( October 2014).The Socio-Economic Implications of Boko Haram Insurgency in the North-East of Nigeria. International journal of innovation and scientific research. 11 (1)
Omoniyi A. Entrepreneurship education: Encouraging future Innovation among women in Ondo State, Nigeria. European Journal of Education Studies. 3(8)
Paul, Moses, & OLAWOLE-ISAAC, (2013) conducted a research on A Qualitative Assessment of the Effects of Child Marriage on Female Education and Entrepreneurship in Northeastern Nigeria.
Shamsad A. (2018). Fostering Women’s Entrepreneurship in ASEAN. Transforming Prospects, Transforming Societies. United Nations Publications. Retrieved at http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ESCAP-FWE-ASEAN-full_0.pdf
Sirelkhatim & Gangi, Fatima Sirelkhatim1 and Yagoub Gangi. (2015). Entrepreneurship education: A systematic literature review of curricula contents and teaching methods. Cogent Business & Management. Retrieved at https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311975.2015.1052034
Siri T. and Ainsley L. (2017). The Female Entrepreneurship Index (FEI). An analysis of the conditions that foster high-potential female. Entrepreneurship. Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute.
Tsyganova, T. (2010). Gender differences in entrepreneurship:Evidence from GEM data. Organisations and markets in emerging economies 1(1)
Zoltán J. Ács A., László Szerb, Ainsley L. (2018).The Global Entrepreneurship Index. Retrieved at www.gedi.orgd∂ds